What is Node.js and its concepts in web development process

Have you heard about Node.js and its concepts? Node.js is an open-source server-side runtime environment built on Google Chrome’s JavaScript engine. It provides an event-driven, non-blocking input/output system and cross-platform runtime environment for building a highly reliable and scalable server-side application using JavaScript.

Node.js is so powerful that supports to build a wide range of applications such as live streaming application, REST API, server-based web application, a real-time communication application, etc. However, Node.js comprises numerous concepts that help in building multi-user network applications, web servers, similar to PHP, ASP.NET. 

One should aware of various concepts of Node.js before going deeply into the development process:

Concepts of Node.js

Non-blocking I/O

One of the main operations of Node.js is to handle browser requests as it is a server-side framework. In conventional input/output systems, the server blocks other or concurrent requests until the response (the HTML page) of the previous request has arrived. This server blocking issues called blocking I/O. In order to process the current request, the browser has to wait in a rotating circle manner.

Unlike the traditional model, Node.js doesn’t follow such kind of principle in Input/output system. If a request seems to take a longer time to load, Node.js sends that particular request in an event loop and goes ahead to handle the next request in the call stack. As soon as the processing of pending requests done, Node.js interferes to get the response and that rendered on the browser.


JavaScript is a prototype-based language, which means that each object has a prototype chain. A prototype is a sophisticated concept of JavaScript. Every JavaScript object is merged to a prototype object from which it can inherit properties. In general, JavaScript comes with a predefined Object prototype that linked with objects. Creating an object in JavaScript and then augment the own objects from it. This is called prototypal inheritance and is implemented via the prototype.

The best feature of this particular system is that many objects can share the same methods on a prototype object, which conserves memory and enables easy code reuse. And each prototype is a delegate object, which means that the property lookup is assigned to the prototype object which contains its own prototype.

Before commencing a new object, one must select an object that should be of its own prototype.


Modules are plain JavaScript files that contain a bundle of codes for a specific purpose. The module pattern helps your code to navigate and works in an easier manner. To use such properties of a module, you have to require it from JavaScript file the same as importing a package in a Java class.

There are two types of modules in Node.js.

Core Modules 

These are the modules that are pre-compiled with the Node.js library. The main purpose of these core modules is to enable developers too often repeating code sections without this module, it results in a tough task for developers because they have to write the same code then. Some common core modules are HTTP, EVENTS, URL, FILE SYSTEM, etc.

User-Defined Modules

In user-defined modules, the developer makes for a specific purpose in its application. These modules come into action when the core modules didn’t meet the required functionality. Modules are extracted through the require function the argument possesses the same name of that module in the core module. But in the user-defined module, the argument is the path of that module in the file system.


Callbacks are the largely used functional programming paradigm. These functions in JavaScript are passed as arguments to other functions. Also, these can be executed or returned from that function to be executed later.

When a callback function is passed as an argument to another function, only the function definition is passed. The timing of the callback function execution entirely depends on the calling function’s mechanism. This is the sole basis of the asynchronous or non-blocking behaviour of the Node JS framework. 

To read more, stay tuned to our blog page where we pool a number of articles on Node.js.

Have a good day!!!


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